Frantz Fanon is one of the most influential critics within the postcolonial context. In Black Skins, White Masks and The Wretched of the Earth, he explored the power relations between coloniser and colonised and attempted to change the passive attitude adopted by the latter. Marxist background, participation in the Algerian revolution, against the French empire. Fanon began to move the conscience of the colonised by means of a haranguing discourse, which very often claimed for a violent rebellion to overthrow the tyrannical coloniser. Apart from denouncing the underprivileged position of the colonised, Fanon examined how native bourgeoisies, after the imperial nation left the colony, started to implement the same policy as the metropolis. In The Wretched of the Earth, he accuses this bourgeoisie of being responsible for the loss of the “national consciousness” that should have been the basis of a new and decolonised mentality. In Black Skins, White Masks he analyses the way black populations are made to interiorise a sense of inferiority with respect to the white coloniser, and to assume that Blackness is not a category in itself but, rather, a negation of all that whiteness represents.

Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s main concern was to explore how language was employed as another mechanism for the expansion of the imperial ideology. Both language and education were the first step towards the colonisation of the native mind, forced to admit that local tongues and educational infrastructures were deficient. His linguistic reality was dominated by English, indoctrinated to discard anything that was not English-oriented. His literary scope was limited to a list of canonical British authors presented as the only ones worth reading. Thiong’o learnt to live in a bilingual context and eventually chose to write in his native Kenyan tongue. He always perceived English as a constraint, not the language in which he could express his emotions or feelings as he could in his mother tongue. He associated English with the language of the coloniser and encouraged authors to write in their African tongues. “Writing in the language of the colonizer means that many of one’s own people –those people with whom a postcolonial writer identifies by nativity- are not able to read one’s original work.”
Theory and Criticism in the 21st Century
Diasporic Theory
The term diaspora is historically related to the Jews living in exile from the Palestinian homeland. It has been applied to the forcible displacement and scattering of Africans, principally to the New World due to the slave trade. The term has become central following the post-colonial theory speaking of all displaced and migrant peoples. Theorizing Diaspora by Jana Evans Braiel and Anita Mannur is a collection of essays grouped and related to broader concerns such as modernity, globalization, ethnicity and identity, sexuality and gender, and cultural production. A postscript links diaspora with cyberelectronics.
Introducing Criticism in the 21st Century by Julian Wolfreys provides an introductory guide to critical thought at the turn of the present century. Categories are both familiar: identity, gender, feminism, ethnicity; and new: chaos theory, ethical criticism, trauma theory, ecocriticism, spatial criticism, spectral criticism, (a)material criticism.
Gilles Deleuze and Emmanuel Levinasre-oriented criticism towards a productive dialogue between criticism and philosophy, considering in the essays all forms of dultural production, from canonical narratives to films, pop culture and plays, poems and websites.

LEITCH, VINCENT B., The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: W.W.Norton and Co., 2001.
BALDICK, CHRIS. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
CASHMORE, ELLIS. Ed. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. London: Routledge, 1996.